Questions & Answers – Open Channel Flow

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Chapter 1 - Open Channel Flow - Introduction to Open Channel Flow

Open Channel Flow - Introduction to Open Channel Flow

An open channel is a conduit in which a liquid flows with a free surface. The free surface is actually an interface between the moving liquid and an overlying fluid medium and will have constant pressure. In civil engineering applications; water is the most common liquid with air at atmospheric pressure as the overlying fluid. As such, our attention will be chiefly focused on the flow of water with a free surface. The prime motivating force for open channel fl ow is gravity.

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Chapter 2 - Open Channel Flow - Specific Energy

Open Channel Flow - Specific Energy

The concept of specific energy is very useful in defining critical depth and in the analysis of flow problems. It may be noted that while the total energy in a real fluid flow always decreases in the downstream direction, the specific energy is constant for a uniform flow and can either decrease or increase in a varied flow, since the elevation of the how to write dissertation proposal bed of the channel relative to the elevation of the total energy line, determines the specific energy. If the frictional resistance of the flow can be neglected, the total energy in non-uniform flow will be constant at all sections while the specific energy for such flows, however, will be constant only for a horizontal bed channel and in all other cases the specific energy will vary.

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Chapter 3 - Open Channel Flow - Specific Force

Open Channel Flow - Specific Force

Hydraulic jump is one subject which has extensively been studied in the field of hydraulic engineering. It is an intriguing and interesting phenomenon that has caught the imagination of many research workers since its first description by Leonardo da Vinci. The Italian engineer Bidone is credited with the first experimental investigation of this phenomenon. Since then considerable research effort has gone into the study of this subject. The literature on this topic is vast and ever-expanding. The main reason for such continued interest in this topic is its immense practical utility in hydraulic engineering and allied fields. A hydraulic jump primarily serves as an energy dissipator to dissipate the excess energy of flowing water downstream of hydraulic structures, such as spillways and sluice gates. Some of the other uses are: efficient operation of flow-measurement flumes, mixing of chemicals, to aid intense mixing and gas transfer in chemical processes, in the desalination of sea water, and in the aeration of streams which are polluted by bio-degradable wastes.

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Chapter 4 - Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow

Open Channel Flow - Gradually Varied Flow

A steady non-uniform flow in a prismatic channel with gradual changes in its water surface elevation is termed as gradually varied flow (GVF). The backwater produced by a dam or weir across a river and the draw-down produced at a sudden drop in a channel write narrative essay are few typical examples of GVF. In a GVF, the velocity varies along the channel and consequently the bed slope, water surface slope, and energy slope will all differ from each other. Regions of high curvature are excluded in the analysis of this flow.

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Chapter 5 - Open Channel Flow- Applications on GVF

Almost all major hydraulic-engineering activities in free-surface flow involve the computation of GVF profiles. Considerable  computational effort is involved in the analysis of problems, such as determination of the effect of a hydraulic structure on the flow pattern in the channels, inundation of lands due to a dam or weir construction, and estimation of the flood zone. Because of its practical importance the computation of GVF has been a topic of continued interest to hydraulic engineers for the last 150 years.

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